Culture Tuesday is a new weekly column in which Best of Vegan Editor Samantha Onyemenam explores the cuisines of different cultures across the globe through a plant-based and vegan lens. Click here to read her column about Sri Lankan cuisine, here to read her column about Nigerian cuisine, and here to read her column about Indian cuisine.
Culture Tuesday – Somali Cuisine
The Somali cuisine is a delicious fusion of East African, Indian, Persian, Arab, British, Italian, French, and ancient Somali cuisines. As Somali people are traditionally semi-nomadic or nomadic, they have adopted aspects of the cuisines of other nations in East Africa and the Horn of Africa and nearby Arab countries. Those who migrated back to Somalia, over the years, returned with learned cultures which gradually influenced the cultural cuisine of Somalia until they became traditional parts of the modern cuisine.
As Somali people are traditionally semi-nomadic or nomadic, they have adopted aspects of the cuisines of other nations in East Africa and the Horn of Africa and nearby Arab countries.
A significant number of Arabs and Persians also migrated to Somalia and/or traded with Somalis in the coastal regions thereby introducing ingredients such as garlic, coriander, cumin, cloves, other spices, and rice, and dishes such as ful and kimis (fava beans with flatbread), hummus, falafels, and pita bread to those regions. The use of these ingredients spread until they became common features in the national cuisine. The Indians and Europeans introduced ingredients, dishes, and cooking methods to the Somalis. These included sabaayad (the Somali paratha), sambusa (Somali samosas), chillies (which were taken from the Native Americans by the Europeans), pasta dishes, pastries, and puddings.
Herbs and Spices
Somali cuisine features the use of warm spices to enhance the flavour of foods as well as to give them deeper, spicier, and more earthy notes of flavour during cooking, marinating, or serving stages. Some of the most used spices are kaamun (cumin seeds), hayl (cardamom), qorfo dhegeyere (cloves), qorfe/qorfo dhaadher (cinnamon), hulbad (fenugreek seeds), hulbad caleen (fenugreek leaves), sinjibiil (ginger), kabsar (coriander seeds), kabsar caleen (coriander leaves), joss (nutmeg), basbaas (chilli), filfil (black pepper), and huruud (turmeric). These herbs and spices are usually bought and stored whole to preserve the intensities of their flavours. Prior to being used in a dish, the spices are usually dry roasted to amplify their flavour before they are freshly ground as needed.
Somali cuisine features the use of warm spices to enhance the flavour of foods as well as to give them deeper, spicier, and more earthy notes of flavour during cooking, marinating, or serving stages.
Apart from cooking with individual spices, Somali people also cook with a traditional spice blend known as ‘xawaash.’ Xawaash is the backbone of many Somali dishes giving it the authentic flavour of the cuisine. Its ingredients vary with region. However, generally, it contains dry roasted and ground cumin seeds, coriander seeds, black peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, green cardamom, cloves, nutmeg, and cinnamon, as well as dried ginger and turmeric.
“You can’t be trusted unless you use red onion in your cooking”
This is a common Somali phrase as, likewise to most African nations, the Somali people cook relatively strictly with red onions as one of the ingredients for many dishes, especially those served as qado (lunch) or casho (dinner) such as suugo (pasta sauce), a qumbe stew (Somali coconut milk and yoghurt stew), bariis iskukaris (a rice dish consisting of a mixture of fried vegetables, potatoes, raisins, peppers and spices), maraq (hot pot soup), surbiyaan (another rice dish) and cambuulo iyo maraq (a traditionally vegan rice and adzuki bean in a tomato sauce dish).
The practice of eating rice or pasta dishes with banana(s) is commonly practiced in various African nations. It involves eating a bite, or slice, of banana with each fork/spoonful of the main dish.
The sauces are usually served with bariis (rice) or suqaar (pasta) and moos (banana) on the side offering a sweet and cooler contrast to the hot savoury dishes. The practice of eating rice or pasta dishes with banana(s) is commonly practiced in various African nations. It involves eating a bite, or slice, of banana with each fork/spoonful of the main dish. The contrasting flavour profiles complement each other resulting in a beautiful taste experience with greater depth and balance of flavours.
The Somali cuisine features a range of breads of Somali origin and either of Arab or Indian origin or influenced by breads of Arab of Indian origin as well as some adopted from the Native American cuisine. They are common additions at quraac (breakfast) and casho (dinner). These breads include canjeero (fermented batter flatbread/savoury pancake), lahoh (an unfermented/less fermented version of canjeero), cambabuur (a crepe-like fermented spiced flatbread), kimis/sabayaad (an unleavened flatbread similar to the Indian paratha), rooti (a Somalian roti), pita bread (a yeasted flatbread of Arab origin) malawax (a sweet fried flaky flatbread of Yemeni origin) and muufo (the Somali version of the Native American cornbread).
Some uses of the breads include soaking up sauces and stews or acting as vessels to carry food from the plate or bowl to one’s mouth.
These breads are served with a drizzle or spread of sweet syrup, olive oil or saliid macsaro (sesame oil) and a sprinkle of sugar or filled or topped with falafels, hummus and/or vegetables. Alternatively, they are used to soak up sauces and stews or to act as a vessel to carry food from the plate or bowl to one’s mouth. These foods include misir iyo lows (a lentil and almond dish), maraq bocor (pumpkin soup), cambuulo (sweetened well-cooked azuki beans, qamadi (well-cooked and seasoned bulgur wheat).
Cunto Fudud (Snacks/Light Meals/Treats)
Somalis have a wide range of snacks, light meals, and treats. These are usually found at events such as weddings, Eid celebrations or parties, but some are often regularly available in homes or sold as street food. These foods include fresh fruit such as cambo (mango), moos (banana) and linbanbeelmo (orange), sambusa (Somali version of the Indian samosa – a spicy fried triangular pastry filled with a mixture of vegetables), kabaab (Somali version of the Arab kebab – fire roasted skewers of chopped vegetables or non-vegan ingredients which can be substituted with meat alternatives), xalwo (a sweet seasoned cornstarch confection of Arab origins), qumbe/gashaato (a spiced coconut sweet), lows iyo sisin (a peanut and sesame seed caramel bar), jalaato (frozen fruit purees on a stick), doolshe (cakes), icun (a chewy flour, sugar and oil confection), baklava (a sweet and flaky nut pastry), macsharo yariis (mini Swahili rice and coconut cakes), and ma’amoul (an Arab cookie filled with a mixture of fates and nuts).
Vegan Somali Recipe: Cambabuur
Below is a link to the recipe for cambabuur, a spiced and fermented batter flatbread. Although this recipe is best with a sourdough starter, this is a quick recipe that does not require a starter making it easier for anyone to make.
You Might Also Like:
- Culture Tuesday: An Exploration of Sri Lankan Cuisine
- Culture Tuesday: An Exploration of Indian Cuisine
- Culture Tuesday: An Exploration of Nigerian Cuisine
- Culture Tuesday: 10 Vegan Nigerian Recipes You Need To Try
- Culture Tuesday: An Exploration of Native American Cuisine of North America
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